Updated 22 September 2016
A lot of creative filmmakers use DSLRs like the Canon 700D, or mirrorless cameras like the Panasonic GH4, for video. Some of these interchangeable lens cameras can shoot ‘film-like’ shallow focus shots, and they’re better than similarly priced camcorders in low light.
- Canon have the best colours, are easy to use, and have a wide range of lens options. They’re popular with professionals. But their SLRs are big, and most of their affordable cameras only shoot 1080p HD.
- Panasonic are small, well-made and produce sharp video. Their most recent models can shoot 4K Ultra High Definition.
- Sony’s A7S and A7S II are small full-frame cameras with excellent low light performance, but they suffer badly from rolling shutter.
If you’re on a really tight budget, you can get used SLR or mirrorless cameras that can shoot HD video for under $300 (£250): my suggestions are on this page.
This prosumer DSLR adds weather-sealing, a headphone socket, better battery life and 1080p slow motion. It’s more solidly built, with better controls than the T5i/700D, and very good autofocus for movie shooting. An electronic level helps you avoid sloping horizons. The older 70D is also worth considering but lacks the headphone socket and 1080p slow motion.
The EOS M5 is Canon’s top mirrorless camera. It has similar video features to the 80D (but no headphone socket), with the addition of a convenient built-in electronic viewfinder and five-axis image stabilisation. It’s designed to be used with compact EF-M lenses, but you can fit standard Canon lenses with an adapter. Battery life won’t be as good as the 80D. You could also consider the midrange EOS M3.
This full-frame professional camera has the best video quality of these Canon cameras, and is particularly good in low light. It’s bigger, heavier and a lot more expensive than the 7D. Like the 7D it has full quality HDMI output (so you can use an external recorder) and a headphone socket, and can shoot 1080p slow motion. The latest 5D MkIV version can shoot 4K, but only in crop mode.
If you don’t need to shoot stills, I think the Canon C100 Mk I – an interchangeable lens video camera which costs about the same as the 5D – is a better choice for filmmaking.
The G7 is a popular, affordable mirrorless camera with a built-in electronic viewfinder which can record consumer-quality 4K (3840 x 2160) and 1080p/60 slow motion. The smaller sensor means you’ll need an adapter to get the same dramatic shallow focus effects as APS-C or ‘full frame’ cameras. It doesn’t have a headphone jack.
Panasonic G85 (US) / G80 (Europe)
This is a more professional development of the G7, with a magnesium body, bigger battery, weather sealing, in-body image stabilisation and the option of adding a battery grip.
Panasonic’s flagship mirrorless camera has a lot of features designed for filmmakers, and can shoot in Cinema 4K (unlike the G7 and G85 which only shoot consumer 4k). Like the 7D and 5D, it can output broadcast quality footage to an external recorder.
The optional YAHG unit adds a lot of pro video features like XLR microphone inputs and HDMI outputs.
The GH4’s replacement, the GH5, will be out in early 2017. It will be able to shoot 4K at 60fps in 4:2:2 without needing an external recorder.
Sony’s A7S II is an expensive full-frame mirrorless camera. It’s becoming popular with documentary and news filmmakers. It’s exceptionally good in low light and can record 4k.
The older A7S is more affordable but needs an external recorder for 4K.
What else will I need?
DSLRs can shoot great footage, but you’ll need some extras to film with them. You will almost certainly need a viewfinder and a microphone or sound recorder; you might also need some other gear, depending on what kind of film you’re making. So I’ve created a basic filmmaking equipment list.
Viewfinders and monitors
If you’re using an SLR, you’ll probably want to magnify the ‘live view’ image on the camera screen so you can focus accurately. (You could use touchscreen autofocus on more recent models.) With mirrorless cameras like the Panasonic GH4 you can use the electronic viewfinder instead.
An optical viewfinder like the pro Zacuto Z-finder or the cheaper Kamerar enlarges the image and makes the screen much easier to see in bright light. It’s also easier to hold the camera steady with the eyepiece against your eye.
For working on a tripod, a field monitor (a separate LCD screen) is more convenient.
Lenses and adaptors
You could just get one or two zooms, or some prime lenses (lenses that don’t zoom). These usually have wider apertures so they’re good for shallow focus and low light. Guide to different kinds of lenses.
If you’re using a Panasonic mirrorless camera, you can get the much more expensive Metabones Speed Booster adaptors, to use lenses designed for full-frame cameras. They reduces the focal length and effectively increase the aperture, making the lens better in low light and providing shallower depth of field.
A follow focus lets you change focus smoothly and keep things in focus when they move. Most of them are designed to be mounted on 15mm rods (see below).
Neutral density filters
You might need ND filters (ND) filters. These cut down the light, so you can use wide apertures (for shallow focus) and keep the shutter speed fairly slow (for smooth motion). You could get a set of ND filters of different strengths.
Variable ND filters are convenient. But good ones are expensive, and they don’t work properly with wide angle lenses.
A matte box with moveable flaps cuts out stray light more effectively than a lens hood, so you can shoot images with more contrast and less flare. Most include filter holders, so you can easily add and change square ND filters. They’re expensive and you usually need to mount them on 15mm rods (see below).
Rigs and cages
Most accessories like follow focuses and matte boxes are designed to fit onto a pair of 15mm rods. You can buy basic camera supports with these rods, but if you buy a rig or cage they’ll probably be included.
Unless you’re shooting silent, you’ll need a separate microphone or audio recorder. You can mount a microphone like the Rode Videomic Pro on your camera, connect a boom-mounted directional mic or a lavalier mic, or use a separate audio recorder like the Zoom H4n and sync the image and sound later when you edit.
A Beachtek MCC-2 mount/adaptor lets you manually adjust the audio from two external microphones.
The Rodelink wireless kit is great for shooting presentations and interviews.
Separate video recorders
Most SLRs don’t record broadcast quality. They also shoot just 30 minutes at a time (in Europe) and use memory cards which fill up quickly. There’s a way around this for higher-end SLRs like the Canon 7D and upwards. The Atomos Ninja is a video recorder and monitor which takes the full-quality video output from the camera’s HDMI socket and records it to an external hard drive or SSD (solid state drive). It’s not cheap, but it’s a good way to upgrade a higher-end SLR to shoot real broadcast quality.
You can update or replace the firmware on some cameras. For Canon, the free open source Magic Lantern adds a lot of useful extra features like zebra stripes on overexposed areas in the viewfinder, motorised rack focus with some lenses, and timelapse. It’ll also let some cameras record RAW (unprocessed full quality) video which gives you more options with exposure and colour correction. You can get a similar hack for the older Panasonic GH2 mirrorless cameras.
A note on sensor size
Most cheaper system cameras have APS-C sensors. They are about the same size as traditional 35mm movie camera frames, and slightly less than half the size of so-called full frame camera sensors.
Lenses designed for APS-C sensors won’t work properly if you upgrade to a full frame camera, but you can use full frame lenses on the smaller sensors.
Full frame cameras, with sensors the same size as a 35mm still camera negative, are more expensive. Most give better image quality in low light, and you’ll get the full effect of wide angle lenses. (‘Crop sensors’ make wide angle lenses seem less wide, and telephoto lenses seem longer.)
Panasonic’s ‘four thirds’ sensor size (which they share with Olympus) is smaller than Canon and Nikon’s APS-C sensors. This means the cameras are smaller but they may not be as good in low light. The optical Metabones Speedbooster adaptor is designed to let you use lenses designed for larger sensors on the Panasonics and other mirrorless cameras while maintaining their original field of view and shallow depth of field.